Macula Complete

Macula Complete

Macula Complete

Potent Macula and Full Body Protection

  • Designed to increase energy and to address the nutrient deficiencies associated with diseases of the retina and full body. 
  • Includes optimal amounts of 43 superior biochemically-balanced ingredients clinically proven to address disease prevention and control disease progression. 
  • Millions of doctor-recommended doses safely used by satisfied consumers
  • Manufactured to Good Manufacturing Practice Standards (GMP) 
  • 60-day full money back guarantee A Wise Decision!
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General Overview of Macula Complete

Macula Complete is a high-energy premium broad-spectrum dietary supplement of vitamins, minerals and antioxidant phytochemicals designed to support optimal body and retinal function. When you take Macula Complete you do not need additional multiple vitamin supplements. Macula Complete is Made in the U.S.A in a NSF GMP registered facility.

Macula Complete includes the nutrients used the three major studies on nutrition as it relates to eye health.

  1. ARED study
  2. Lutein Antioxidant Supplement Trial (LAST)
  3. Phototrop Study (with the exception of Omega-3 fatty acids, which we present as a stand alone product, ZoOmega-3, to ensure fatty acid stability.

The nutrients included in these studies inhibited AMD disease progression in the study participants. We also added efficacious amounts of Alpha Lipoic Acid, CoQ10, and Acetyl-L-Carnitine, which have been suggested in peer-reviewed studies to support the mitochondria, as well as to support production of cellular (ATP) energy.

Macula Complete is an appropriate supplement for those AMD patients who have or those who have or continue to smoke since it does not include beta carotene a source of Vitamin A. The AREDS formulation includes 25,000 IUs of beta carotene; the amount has been linked to increased risk of lung cancer in those who smoke and beta carotene interferes with lutein and zeaxanthin absorption, which is vital for optimal pigment. 
The preformed vitamin A in Macula Complete is retinyl palmitate, which provides adequate vitamin A for night vision, wound healing, immune protection and appropriate cellular differentiation.  The full-spectrum of B vitamins in Macula Complete are included to help prevent DNA damage and inapropriate gene transcription, and to control blood levels of homocysteine, which has been suggested in published studies to increase the risk of dry AMD becoming wet. The Vitamin C included in Macula Complete is a balanced combination of water soluble ascorbic acid and fat soluble ascorbal palmitate to insure continuous circulating vitamin C. Vitamin E is presented in Macula Complete as 30 IU of d-alpha tocopherol primarily from mixed tocopherols, as well as 30 mg of Vitamin E tocotrienols to balance alpha, beta, gamma and delta tocopherols and tocotrienols.  
Macula Complete is properly balanced with a full-spectrum of minerals, including zinc, copper and manganese, which are all three required to produce manganese super-oxide dismutase (Mn SOD), which is necessary to neutralize singlet oxygen and the super-oxide free-radicals suggested to contribute to vascular disease and degenerative diseases of the eyes, including macula degeneration. This issue is not adequately addressed in products that only include the ingredients in the ARED study formulation. Macula Complete also includes the minerals associated with blood sugar control, chromium and vanadium.
The plant-based nutrients included in Macula Complete include Ginkgo biloba, grape seed extract, quercetin, hesperidin, rutin, bilberry, trans-resveratrol and green tea.  These nutrients have been suggested in peer-reviewed scientific literature to address vascular related inflammatory diseases of the entire body and the retina, including glaucoma, cataract and diabetic retinopathy.
The nutrient levels in Macula Complete do not exceed the Institute of Medicine's (IOM) safe upper limits for long-term daily consumption.
Macula Complete is also designed to address mitochondria function, including energy production. It includes efficacious amounts of acetyl-l-carnitine, CoQ10 and lipoic acid.
If taken as separate nutrients, it would be necessary to take forty-six capsules a day and to spend over $225.00 a month to equal the active ingredient nutrients included in six capsules a day of Macula Complete. The cost of Macula Complete is one quarter that amount.

Recommended dosage: Take 6 capsules per day, 3 with each morning and evening meal.

Precautions: Pregnant and lactating women should consult their physician before taking this formulation. These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, or treat any disease.

Age Related Macular Degeneration

Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is a degenerative condition of the macula (the central retina). It is the most common cause of vision loss in Americans age 50 and older, particularly in blue-eyed, post-menopausal females. Its prevalence increases with age.

AMD is caused by arterial damage, which decreases blood flow into the capillaries that nourish the retina and macula and deprives the sensitive retinal tissue of oxygen and nutrients it needs to function and thrive. As a result the central vision deteriorates.
The macula is located at the center of the retina. The retina sends light from the eye to the brain, and the macula allows you to see fine detail.

Macular degeneration varies widely in severity. In the worst cases, ARMD causes a complete loss of central vision, making reading or driving impossible. For others, it may cause only slight distortion. Fortunately, macular degeneration does not cause total blindness since it does not affect the peripheral vision.

Macular degeneration is classified as either wet (neovascular) or dry (non-neovascular). About 10% of people who suffer from macular degeneration have wet AMD. This type occurs when new vessels form to improve the blood supply to oxygen-deprived retinal tissue. However, the new vessels are very delicate and break easily, causing bleeding and damage to surrounding tissue.

People with wet macular degeneration develop new blood vessels under the retina. This causes hemorrhage, swelling, and scar tissue. The more common form of AMD, dry macular degeneration, results in less severe, more gradual loss of vision.
Macular degeneration may be caused by a variety of factors. Genetics, age, nutrition, smoking and sunlight exposure all play a role.

Several peer-reviewed studies have shown a strong link between nutrition and the development of macular degeneration. It has been scientifically demonstrated that people with diets high in fruits and vegetables (especially dark green leafy vegetables and berries) have a lower incidence of macular degeneration. The almost seven year Age Related Eye Disease (ARED) study conducted by The National Eye Institute demonstrated a 25% decrease in the progression of diagnosed macular degeneration in those people who supplemented their diets with specific minerals and antioxidants.

Scientific Rationale Supporting Macula Complete

We are very appreciative of the ARED study and its effect on the eye care professionals understanding of the relationship between nutrients and macular degeneration. However, it is noted in the body of the ARED study that 57% of the study participants were already taking antioxidant vitamins before enrolling in this study, and an additional 13% who were not taking supplements chose to take a multi-vitamin mineral supplement on top of the ARED formulation. Therefore, almost 70% of those in the trial also concurrently took an additional RDA-focused multiple. 


The Biosyntrx scientists believes it prudent to offer a potent multiple for the AMD patients that contains generous amounts of full-spectrum supplemental nutrients and antioxidants that addresses the genetic and degenerative aspects associated with all retina disease. 


Macula Complete is presented in capsule form to assure bioavailability for the older consumer. 


Given the vast amount of science that now supports daily intake of Omega-3 EPA and DHA, we recommend that our concentrated fish oil ZoOmega3 (300 mg EPA and 200 mg DHA per capsule) be taken with each daily dose of Macula Complete


Vitamin A at 2,500 IU in Macula Complete as retinyl palmitate, guarantees adequate retinol for night vision, cornea health, wound healing, immune protection and appropriate cellular differentiation.  Vitamin A should always be presented with zinc and taurine, since they all three play an important role in optimal photoreceptor function. A number of published studies link excessive amounts of Vitamin A as retinol to hip fracture in older people. Macula Complete Vitamin A does not exceed the Institute of Medicines' current recommendation for daily consumption


B vitamins include potent amounts of the full-spectrum of the B-Complex.  They are included in Macula Complete to prevent DNA damage which can lead to inappropriate gene transcription, and to control blood levels of homocysteine that has been suggested in published studies to increase the risk of dry AMD becoming wet

Vitamin C at 500 mg is included in Macula Complete as a balanced combination of water soluble ascorbic acid and fat soluble ascorbal palmitate to ensure continuous vitamin C activity. Vitamin C plays an important role in retina health because it regenerates the antioxidant activity of Vitamin D. 
Vitamin D3 at 2,000 IU per daily dose is included to address the now recognized vitamin D deficiency epidemic and its role in retina health.  This amount does not exceed the Institute of Medicine safe upper limit.

Vitamin E is presented in Macula Complete as 30 IU of natural D-alpha tocopherol, primarily from mixed tocopherols, as well as 30 mg of Vitamin E tocotrienols to maintain biochemical balance of the 8 different parts of vitamin E: alpha, beta, gamma and delta tocopherols and tocotrienols.  The amount of vitamin E listed on a supplement fact box in the vitamin section only refers to the amount of alpha-tocopheral, not the amount of the complete spectrum of vitamin E.

Full-Spectrum Minerals are balanced to provide proper bio-electrical responses at the cellular level. This is a major issue for proper enzymatic function in the human body, including the eye.  These minerals include Calcium, Magnesium, Selenium, Boron, Copper, Manganese, Chromium, Vanadium, and Molybdenum.

Zinc at 25 mg is included in Macula Complete.
It is chleated with monomethionine for optimal absorption.  This zinc is balanced with small amounts of copper and manganese to produce intracellular super-oxide dismutase (SOD) and extracellular manganese super-oxide dismutase (MnSOD), which is necessary to neutralize singlet oxygen and super oxide free radicals.  Excessive copper intake is linked to angiogenesis.

are a scientifically balanced mixture of beta and alpha carotenoids, 1 mg of lycopene, 16 mg of FloraGlo lutein plus 4 mg of ZeaGold zeaxanthin, which strengthen the macula and has been suggested to lower the risk of developing certain tes of cancers. New science suggests that the central macula has a distinct preference for zeaxanthin. Macula Complete does not included beta carotene. It is considered safe for those who still smoke and those who have ever smoked or been exposed to second-hand smoke.

Phytochemical Antioxidant
anthocyandins - grape seed, bilberry and ginkgo biloba provide potent antioxidant protection from free radical damage in the entire body and the eyes.

(hesperidin, quercetin, and rutin) strengthen the vascular system, which plays an important role in transporting proper nutrients to every organ in the body including the eye.

is included at the 100 mg level to enhance mitochondrial function, improve insulin sensitivity, reduce inflammation and protect against toxic effects of high-fat diets.  Trans-resveratrol is suggested in a number of studies to mimic caloric restriction benefits linked to protection of chromosome caps, or telomeres, that deteriorate with age.  Longer telomeres are associated with both longer lives and healthier aging.

Green Tea
is included at the 100 mg level to reduce the risk of cancer development and progression.  Green Tea is rich in catechin polyphenols, particularly epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG).  EGCG is suggested to lower LDL cholesterol levels, and inhibit abnormal formation of blood clots.

is included to retard the progressive visual field reduction in retinitis pigmentosa and as the universal carrier of lipid soluble vitamins.  Taurine intake is suggested to play a significant role in maintaining fluid balance in the eye.

is included to slow the progression of cellular cross-linking associated with cataract formation.

Mitotrophic compounds, Lipoic Acid,
CoQ10 and Acetyl-l-Carnitine to delay brain mitochondrial decay and aging. They are also suggested to slow the progression of macular degeneration and memory loss in a number of studies. These nutrients boost ATP cellular energy.


Double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of lutein and antioxidant supplementation in the intervention of trophic age-related macular degeneration: the Veterans LAST study (Lutein Antioxidant Supplementation Trial). Richer S, Stiles W, Optometry 2004 Apr;75(4):216-30 [abstract]
Age-related macular degeneration and antioxidant vitamins: recent findings. Johnson EJ. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2009 Oct 16 [abstract]
Mirotrophic compounds for the treatment of age-related macular degeneration. The metabolic approach and a pilot study. Feher J, Papale A, et al. Ophthalmologica, 2003 Sept-Oct;217 (5):351-7. [ abstract]
Dietary intake of antioxidants and risk of age-related macular degeneration. van Leeuwen R, Soekhoorn S. JAMA 2005 Dec 28;294(24):3101-7 [abstract]
Dietary Antioxidants and the Long-term Incidence of Age-Related Macular Degeneration The Blue Mountains Eye Study Tan JS, Want JJ, el al Ophthalmology 2008 Jul 28; [abstract]
Dietary antioxidants and primary prevention of age related macular degeneration: systematic review and meta-analysis. Chong EW, Wong TY, et al. British Medical Journal 2007 Oct 8 [abstract]
Evidence for the effect of opega-3 fatty acids on progression of age-related macular degeneration: a systematic review. Hodge WG. Barnes D, et al. Retina 2007 Feb:27(2):216-21 [abstract]
Nutrition supplements and the eye.Brown NA, Bron AJ, et al. Eye 1998;12 (Pt 1):127-33 [abstract]
Vitamin A Studies
Retinoic acid--a player that rules the game of life and death in neutrophils.Mehta K. Indian J Exp Biol. 2002 Aug;40(8):874-81. [abstract]
Light responses in rods of vitamin A-deprived Xenopus. solessio E, Umino Y, et al. IOVS 2009 Sep;50(9):4477-86 [abstract]
The immunoregulatory role of vitamins A, D and E in patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome. Szodoray P, Hovath IF, et al. Rheumatology 2009 Nov 27 [abstract]
Serum retinol levels and the risk of fracture.Michaelsson K. Lithell H, et al. N Engl J Med. 2003 Jan 23;348(4):287-94 [abstract]
Vitamin A intake and hip fractures among postmenopausal women.Feskanich D, Singh V, et al. JAMA. 2002 Jan 2;287(1):47-54. [abstract]
Excessive dietary intake of vitamin A is associated with reduced bone mineral density and increased risk for hip fracture.Melhus H, Michaelsson K, et al. Ann Intern Med. 1998 Nov 15;129(10):770-8. [abstract]
Dietary reference values for vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium and zinc.Shenkin A. J Hum Nutr Diet 2003 Jun;16(3):199-200. On file in Biosyntrx research office. [abstract]

B Vitamin Studies

Homocysteine, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism and the B-vitamins: a facet of nature-nurture interplay.Herrmann, W, Obeid R, et al. Clin Chem Lab Med 2003 Apr;41(4):547-53 [abstract]

Hyperhomocysteinemia and vitamin score: correlations with silent brain ischemic lesions and brain atrophy.Polyak Z, Stern F. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2003;16(1):39-45. [abstract]

Betaine supplementation lowers plasma homocysteine in healthy men and women.Steenge GR. Verhoef, P, et al. J Nutr. 2003 May;133(5):1291-5. [abstract]

Hyperhomocysteinemia in Japanese patients with convalescent stage ischemic stroke: Effect of combined therapy with folic acid and mecobalamine.Sato Y, Kaji M, et al. J Neurol Sci 2002 Oct 15;202(1-2):65 [abstract]

Vitamins for chronic disease prevention in adults: scientific review.Fairfield KM, Fletcher RH. JAMA. 2002 Jun 19;287(23):3116-26. Review. [abstract]

Hyperhomocysteinemia and retinal vascular occlusive disease.Abu El-Asrar AM, Addel Gader AG, et al. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2002 Nov-Dec;12(6):495-500. [abstract]

Homocysteine as a risk factor for nephropathy and retinopathy in Type 2 diabetes.Looker HC, Fagot-Campagna A Diabetologia. 2003 May 28 [Epub ahead of print] [abstract]

Vitamin C Studies

Vitamin C is associated with reduced risk of cataract in a Mediterranean population.Valero MP, Fletcher AE, el al. J Nutr 2002 Jun;132(6):1299-306 [abstract]

Ascorbic acid spares alpha-tocopherol and decreases lipid peroxidation in neuronal cells.Lix, Huang J, May JM. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2003 Jun 6;305(3):656-61. [abstract]

Vitamin D Studies

Association Between Vitamin D and Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988 through 1994 Parekh N, Chappell RJ. Arch Ophthalmol. May 2007;125(5):661-669 [abstract]
Vitamin D in preventive medicine: are we ignoring the evidence?Zitterman A Br J Nutr. 2003 May;89(5):552-72. [abstract]
The efficacy of calcitriol therapy in the management of bone loss and fractures: a qualitative review. Peppone LJ, Hebl S, et al. Osteoporos Int. 2009 Dec 4 [abstract]
Is vitamin D important for preserving cognition? A positive correlation of serum 25-hydroxy Vitamin D concentration with cognitive function. Przybelski RJ, et al. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2007 Apr 15:460(2); 202-5. [abstract]

Vitamin D and bone health in postmenopausal women.Malabanan AO, Holick MF. J Womens Health 2003 Mar;12(2):151-6. [abstract]
25-Hydroxyvitamin D, dementia, and cerebrovascular pathology in olders receiving home services. Buell JS, Dawson-Hugees B, et al. Neurology 2009 Nov 25 [abstract]
Mechanisms by which nutritional disorders cause reduced bone mass in adults.Miller KK. J Women's Health 2003 Mar;12(2):145-50. [abstract]

Vitamin D receptor alleles, periodontal disease progression, and tooth loss in the VA dental longitudinal study.Inauaki K, Krall EA, et al. J Periodontol. 2003 Feb;74(2):161-7. [abstract]
Proceedings of the conference Vitamin D and Cancer: Current Dilemmas and Future Needs, Bethesda, Maryland, USA, May 7-8, 2007 Nutr Rev 2007 Aug;65(8 Pt 2):S71-137. [available in Biosyntrx Research Office]
Vitamin E Studies
Anti-angiogenic function of tocotrienol. Mizazawa T, Shibata A, et al. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17 suppl 1:253-6 [abstract]
Tocotrienols suppress proinflammatory markers and cycloosygenase-2 expression in RAW264-7 macrophages. Yam ML, Abdul Hafid SR. Lipids 2009 Sep; 44(9): 787-97 [abstract]
Vitamin e tocotrienols improve insulin sensitivity through activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. Fang F, Kanz Z, Wong C. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2009 Oct 28 [abstract]
alpha-, gamma- and delta-tocopherols reduce inflammatory angiogenesis in human microvascular endothelial cells.  Wells SR, Jennings MH, et al. J Nutr Biochem. 2009 May 13 [abstract]
Chemoprevention of tocotrienols: the mechanism of antiproliferative effects. Wada A. Forum Nutr. 2009; 61:204-16 [abstract]
Gamma-tocopherol and its major metabolite, in contrast to alpha-tocopherol, inhibit cyclooxygenase activity in macrophages and epithelial cells.Elson-Schwab I, Courtemanche C, Ames BN. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Oct 10;97(21):11494-9 [abstract]

Risk of mortality with vitamin E supplements: the Cache County study. Hayden KM, Welsh-Bohmer KA, et al. Am J Med. 2007 Feb;120(2): 180-4 [abstract]
Vitamin E in humans: an explanation of clinical trial failure. Robinson I, deSerna DB, et al. Endocr Pract 2006 Sep-Oct; 12(5):576-82 [abstract]
Mineral Studies
Manganese-Based complexes of radical scavengers as neuroprotective agents.Vajragupta O, Boonchoong P, et al. Bioorg Med Chem 2003 May 15;11(10):2329-2337. [abstract]

The relationship between serum trace element changes and visual function in heavy smokers.Uz E, Sabin S, Hepsen IF, et al. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 2003 Apr;81(2):161-164. [abstract]

Copper control as an antiangiogenic anticancer therapy: lessons from treating Wilson's disease.Brewer GJ. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2001 Jul;226(7):665-73 [abstract]

Depletion of Intracellular Zinc and Copper with TPEN Results in Apoptosis of Cultured Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells.Hyae Jung Hyun, Joon Hong sohn, et al. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 2001;42:460-465. [abstract]
High dose zinc increases hospital admissions due to genitourinary complications. Johnson AR, Munoz A, Gottlieb JL, Jarrard DF. J Urol, 2007 Feb;177(2); 639-43 [abstract]
High concentration of zinc in sub-retinal pigment epithelial depostits. Lengyel I, Flin JM, Peto T, et al. Exp Eye Res. 2007 Apr;84(4):772-80. [abstract]
Selenium deficiency and viral infection.Beck MA, Levander OA, Handy J. J Nut r 2003 May;133(5 Suppl 1):1463S-7S [abstract]

Carotenoid Studies
Molecular medicine in Ophthalmic care. Richer S, Stiles W, Thomas C. Optometry. 2009 Dec;80(12):695-701 [abstract]
Effect of lutein on retinal neurons and oxidative stress in a model of acute retinal ischemia/reperfusion. Li SY, Fu ZJ, et al. IOVS 2009 Feb;50(2): 836-43 [abstract]
Effect of zeaxanthin and antioxidant supplementation on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in apolipoprotein-E deficient mice. Fernandez-Robredo P, Recalde S, et al. Curr Eye Res 2009 Jul;34(7):543-52 [abstract]
Influence of Lutein Supplementation on Macular Pigment, Assessed with Two Objective Techniques.Tos T, Berendschot R, et al. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 2000;41:3322-3326. [abstract]
Lutein and zeaxanthin dietary supplements raise macular pigment density and serum concentrations of these carotenoids in humans.Bone RA, Landrum JT, et al. J Nutr 2003 Apr;133(4):992-8 [abstract]
The effect of lutein and zeaxanthin supplementation on metabolites of these carotenoids in the serum of persons aged 60 or older. Khachik F, de Moura F, Chew E, Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2006 Dec;47(12):5234-42 [abstract]
Singlet oxygen quenching by dietary carotenoids in a model membrane environment.Cantrell A, McGarvey DJ, et al. Arch Biochem Biophys 2003 Apr 1;412(1):47-54. [abstract]

Effects of 4 y of oral supplementation with beta-carotene on serum concentrations of retinol, tocopherol, and five carotenoids.Nierenberg DW, Dain BJ, et al. Am J Clin Nutr 1997 Aug;66(2):315-9. [abstract]
Circulating Carotenoids, Mammographic Density, and Subsequent Risk of Breast Cancer. Cancer Res. 2009 Nov 24. [abstract]
Neoplastic and Antineoplastic Effects of Beta-Carotene on Colorectal Adenoma Recurrence: Results of a Randomized Trial.Baron JA, Cole BF, et al. Natl Cancer Inst 2003 May 21;95(10):717-22. [abstract]
Plant-based Antioxidant Studies
Neoplastic and Antineoplastic Effects of Beta-Carotene on Colorectal Adenoma Recurrence: Results of a Randomized Trial.Baron JA, Cole BF, et al. Natl Cancer Inst 2003 May 21;95(10):717-22. [abstract]

Bioavailablility of elderberry anthocyanins.Milbury PE, Cao G, at al Mech Ageing Dev 2002 Apr;123(8):997-1006 [abstract]

Effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on preexisting visual field damage in normal tension glaucoma.Quaranta L, Bettelli S, et al. Ophthalmology 2003 Feb;110(2):359-62; discussion 362-4. [abstract]
Flavonoid intake and risk of chronic diseases.Knekt P, Kumpulainen J, et al. Am J Clin Nutr 2002 Sep;76(3):560-8 [abstract]
Antioxidant effect of flavonoids after ascorbate/Fe(2+)-induced oxidative stress in cultured retinal cells.Areias FM, Rego AC, et al. Biochem Pharmacol 2001 Jul 1;62(1):111-8 [abstract]
Repair of amino acid radicals of apolipoprotein b100 of low-density lipoproteins by flavonoids. A pulse radiolysis study with quercetin and rutin.Fi;pe P, Moriere P, et al. Biochemistry 2002 Sep 10;41(36):11057-64 [abstract]
Resveratrol Studies
Molecular medicine in ophthalmic care. Richer S, Stiles W, Thomas C. Optometry 2009 Dec;80(12):695-701 [abstract]
Prevention of ocular inflammation in endotoxin-induced uveitis with resveratrol by inhibiting oxidative damage and nuclear factor-kappaB activation. Kubota S, Kurihara T, IVOS 2009 Jul;50(7): 3512-9 [abstract]
Inhibition of Benzo(e)Pyrene, a Toxic Component of Cigarette Smoke, Induced Apoptosis of Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells In Vitro.  Mansoor S, Gupta N, et al. IVOS 2009 Dec. [abstract]
The potential value of natural antioxidative treatment in glaucoma. Mozaffarieh M, Grieshaber MC, et al. Surv Ophthalmol 2008 Sep-Oct;53(5): 479-505 [abstract]
Resveratrol and large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels in the protection of human retinal pigment epithelial cells. Sheu SJ, Bee YS, Chen CH.  J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2008 Dec;24(6):551-5 [abstract]
Resveratrol and quercetin cooperate to induce senescence-like growth arrest in C6 rat glioma cells. Zamin LL, Flippi-Chiela EC, Dillenburg-Pilla P, et al. Cancer Sci. 2009 Sep;100(9):1655-62 [abstract]
Resveratrol: cellular actions of a potent natural chemical that confers a diversity of health benefits. marques FZ, Markus MA, Morris BJ. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2009 Nov;41(11):2125-8 [abstract]
Resveratrol Modulates Tumor Cell Proliferation and Protein Translation via SIRT1-Dependent AMPK Activation. Lin JN, Lin VC et al. J Agri Food Chem 2009 Nov 20 [abstract]
Potential role of sirtuin as a therapeutic target for neurodegenerative diseases. Han SH. J Clin Neurol. 2009 Sep;5(3): 120-5 [abstract]
Nutrition, sirtuins and aging. Wenzel U. Genes Nutr. 2006 Jun;1(2):85-93. [abstract]
Resveratrol induces senescence-like growth inhibition of U-2 OS cells associated with the instability of telomeric DNA and upregulation of BRCA1. Rusin M, Azjkowicz A, Butkiewicz D. Mech Ageing Dev. 2009 Aug;130(8):528-37 [abstract]
Resveratrol treatment in mice does not elicit the bradycardia and hypothermia associated with calorie restriction. Mayers JR, Lliff, BW, et al. FASEB J. 2009 Apr;23(4):1032-40 [abstract]
Resveratrol improves mitochondrial function and protects against metabolic disease by activating SIRT-1 and PGC-1alpha.  Lagouge M, Argmann C, Gerhart-HinesZ, et al. Cell 2006 Dec 15:127(6):1109-1122 [abstract]
Effect of resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic compound, on reactive oxygen species and prostaglandin production. Martinex J, Moreno JJ. Biochem Pharmacol. 2000 Apr 1;59:865-870 [abstract]
 Effects of resveratrol in inflammatory arthritis. Inflammation. Elmali N, Baysal O, et al. Inflammation. 2007;April 30: 1-6 [abstract]
Apolipoprotein E and its role in aging and survival. Bonomini F, Fillippini F, et al. Exp Gerontrol 2009 Nov 24 [abstract]
Green Tea Studies
Protective effects of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate on UVA-induced damage in ARPE19 cells. Chan CM, Huang JH, et al. Mol Vis. 2008;14:2528-34 [abstract]
Nueroprotective effect of epigallocatechin gallate on oxidative-stress-injured retinal cells. Fan B, Li GY, et al. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2008 Jun 24,: 88 (24):1711-4 [abstract]  
Orally administered epigallocatechin gallate attenuates light-induced photoreceptor damage. Costa BL, Fawcett R, et al. Brain Res Bull. 2008 Jul 1;76(4):412-23 [abstract]
Green tea polyphenols for prostate cancer chemoprevention: A translational perspective. Johnson JJ, Bailey HH, et al. Phytomedicine 2010 Jan; 17(1);3-13 [abstract]

Taurine Studies
Treatment with taurine, diltiazem, and vitamin E retards the progressive visual field reduction in retinitis pigmentosa: a 3-year follow-up study.Pasantes-Morales H, Quiroz H, et al. Metab Brain Dis. 2002 Sep;17(3):183-97. [abstract]

Influences of taurine and micronutrients on nitric oxide synthase expression and cGMP content in rat retina.Mi MT. Ahu JD, et al. Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi 2000 Nov;16(4):343-6. Chinese. [abstract]

The role of diet in cognitive decline.Solfrizzi V, Panza F, et al. J Neural Transm 2003 Jan;110(1):95-110 [abstract]

Taurine as a universal carrier of lipid soluble vitamins: a hypothesis.Petrosian AM, Haroutounian JE. Amino Acids. 2000;19(2):409-21. Review. [abstract]
Mitotrophic Compound Studies
 The role of carnitine in normal and altered fatty acid metabolism. Hoppel C. Am J Kidney Dis. 2003 Apr;41(4 Suppl 4):S4-S12. [abstract]

Improvement of visual functions and fundus alterations in early age-related macular degeneration treated with a combination of acetyl-l-carnitine, n-3 fatty acids, and coenzyme Q10.  Feher, J, Kovacs B, et al. Ophthalmologia 2005 May-June:219(3): 154-66. [abstract]
 Mitotrophic compounds for the treatment of age-related macular degeneration. The metabolic approach and a pilot study. Feher J, Papale A, et al. Ophthalmologica, 2003 Sept-Oct;217 (5):351-7. [ abstract]
 Memory loss in old rats is associated with brain mitochondrial decay and RNA/DNA oxidation: partial reversal by feeding acetyl-l-carnitine and r-alpha-lipoic acid. Liu J, Ames BN, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2002 Feb 19;99(4):2356-61 [abstract]
 Delaying brain mitochondrial decay and aging with mitochondrial antioxidants and metabolites. Liu J, Ames BN, et al. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2002 [abstract]
The Effects and Mechanisms of Mitochondrial Nutrient Alpha-Lipoic acid on Improving Age-Associated Mitochondrial and Cognitive Dysfunction: An Overview. Liu J. Neurochem Res. 2007 Jun 29; [abstract]
Lipoic acid prevents hypertension, hyperglycemia, and the increase in heart mitochondrial superoxide production.Midaoui AE, Elumade A, et al. Am J Hypertens. 2003 Mar;16(3):173-9. [abstract]
Delaying the mitochondrial decay of aging with acetyl-l-carnitine. Ames BN, Liu J. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2004 Nov;1033:108-16 [abstract]
Acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) treatment in elderly patients with fatigue. Malaguarnera M, Gargante MP, et al. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2007 Jul 19 [abstract]
Double-blind, multicenter trial comparing acetyl-l-carnitine with placebo in the treatment of fibromyalgia patients. Rossini M, Di Munno O, et al. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2007 Mar-Apr;25(2):182-8 [abstract]
Dissection of metabolic, vascular, and nerve conduction interrelationships in experimental diabetic neuropathy by cyclooxygenase inhibition and acetyl-l-carnitine administration. Pop-Busui R. Marinescu V, et al. Diabetes 2002 Aug;51(8):2619-28